Skinmade Problem Solver Serum-Pigmentation
Hyperpigmentation is a form of pigment disorder that appears as a darker coloured area of skin compared to the surrounding skin: flat, light brown to black patches of various shapes and sizes. They can be aesthetically very disturbing, especially on the face.
The melanin production is stimulated by the following factors:
The most common cause of hyperpigmentation is UV radiation, because sunlight activates the production of melanin in the melanocytes of the skin. The pigment reaches the surrounding skin cells via cell extensions of the melanocytes. There it covers the cell nucleus like a protective cap, absorbs damaging UV rays and thus protects the cell nucleus. This protection, which is already associated with UV-related skin damage, becomes visible as an even pigmentation or skin tan. In combination with other factors, this UV-induced pigmentation can be disturbed and darker pigmented areas of skin develop.
Hormonal influences are the main causes for the development of a special type of hyperpigmentation called melasma or chloasma. Melasma mainly occurs in women. It is thought to occur when the female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone stimulate the excessive release of melanin while the skin is exposed to the sun.
Diseases & Medications
Hyperpigmentation can also be a cosmetically undesirable side effect of various conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic disorders and vitamin deficiency syndromes. It can also occur as a side effect of hormone preparations, chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, antiepileptic drugs and other medications.
Age spots are a form of pigment spots that can appear on the face, hands and other areas of the skin that are frequently exposed to the sun. Pigment spots are also caused here by the increased activity of melanocytes.
Injuries or inflammations of the skin
After the healing of cuts, burns, acne, eczema, psoriasis or after contact with certain irritants, a dark pigmented area of skin remains after the wound has healed. The melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin, are stimulated to secrete an excessive number of melanosomes (pigment granules). The melanosomes contain tyrosinase, a pigmentation enzyme that initiates melanin formation, as well as melanin that has already been formed. The resulting excess of pigment grains darkens the previously wounded area. The discolouration remains for some time after healing.
Hyperpigmentation (e.g. freckles) can already be congenital or only develop in the course of life.
Possible effects on your biomarkers
Hyperpigmentation (pigment spots) are caused by a local overproduction of melanin or an increase in melanocytes or hyperactivity of existing melanocytes, the pigment that gives the skin, hair and eyes their actual colour.
May occur after injury or inflammation of the skin.
Age spots (lentigo senilis or lentigo solaris)
These small, flat and darkly discoloured spots (light brown to black in colour) are usually found on areas of the skin that are more exposed to the sun. Accordingly, age spots occur particularly frequently on the face or hands.
The predisposition to these small pigment spots is hereditary and cannot be influenced. They are particularly common in people who belong to the so-called Celtic skin type – i.e. men and women who tend to have reddish hair, fair skin and mostly blue or green eyes.
Melasma (large pigmentation disorders)
Melasma is a common form of hyperpigmentation in women, which occurs especially during and after pregnancy. Large, dark discolorations form, primarily on the cheeks, the bridge of the nose, the forehead and the lower lip.
There are other manifestations of skin pigmentation, such as liver spots, scarring, birthmarks, precancerous lesions (actinic keratosis) or skin cancer. However, these skin changes are not understood as an expression of cosmetically undesirable hyperpigmentation, but are classified as pathological skin problems.